domingo, 13 de febrero de 2011

English instrumental

Ingles, aquellos que poseemos pocos conocimiento lo vemos como una piedra en  nuestro camino, para muchos en este programa tenemos que cursarlo de manera obligatoria. De esta semana y media obtuve muchas experiencias y conocimiento que me permitirá aplicarlos más adelante, interesante el Blog; una herramienta de muy buena utilidad como lo hizo ver la Prof. Doris Molero a la cual le agradezco haber compartido conocimientos conmigo al igual que con todos nosotros. algo que les puedo decir ES QUE NO HAY PIEDRA EN NUESTRO CAMINO QUE NO SEPAMOS APROVECHAR, así que ADELANTE

Att: Econ. Wilmer Muñoz
Aspirante a la Maestría de Gerencial Empresarial

Unidad IV. Patrones de Organización de un Párrafo.

Unidad IV. Patrones de Organización de un Párrafo.
En esta unidad se presentan las funciones retóricas de un párrafo. Dicha unidad está estructurada en (2) dos objetivos específicos:

1. Identificar las principales características de una definición.
2. Narrar eventos siguiendo los marcadores de discurso de un patrón de ordenamiento de tiempo.


Venezuela :is a tropical country on the northern coast of South America. It borders Colombia to the west, Guyana to the east, and Brazil to the south. Its roughly 2,800 kilometres (1,700 mi) northern coastline includes numerous islands in the Caribbean Sea, and in the north east borders the northern Atlantic Ocean. Caribbean islands such as Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, Curaçao, Aruba and the Leeward Antilles lie near the Venezuelan coast. Venezuela's territory covers around 916,445 square kilometres (353,841 sq mi) with an estimated population of 29,105,632. Venezuela is considered a country with extremely high biodiversity, with habitats ranging from the Andes mountains in the west to the Amazon Basin rainforest in the south, via extensive llanos plains and Caribbean coast in the center and the Orinoco River Delta in the east.
Venezuela was first
colonized by Spain in 1522, overcoming resistance from indigenous peoples. It became the first Spanish American colony to declare independence (in 1811), but did not securely establish independence until 1821 (initially as a department of the federal republic of Gran Colombia, gaining full independence in 1830). During the 19th century Venezuela suffered political turmoil and dictatorship, and it was dominated by regional caudillos (military strongmen) into the 20th century. It first saw democratic rule from 1945 to 1948, and after a period of dictatorship has remained democratic since 1958, during which time most countries of Latin America suffered one or more military dictatorships. Economic crisis in the 1980s and 1990s led to a political crisis which saw hundreds dead in the Caracazo riots of 1989, two attempted coups in 1992, and the impeachment of President Carlos Andrés Pérez for corruption in 1993. A collapse in confidence in the existing parties saw the 1998 election of former career officer Hugo Chávez, and the launch of a "Bolivarian Revolution", beginning with a 1999 Constituent Assembly to write a new Constitution of Venezuela.
Venezuela is a
federal presidential republic consisting of 23 states, the Capital District (covering Caracas), and Federal Dependencies (covering Venezuela's offshore islands). Venezuela is among the most urbanized countries in Latin America;[4][5] the vast majority of Venezuelans live in the cities of the north, especially in the capital, Caracas, which is also the largest city. Venezuela is a founder member of the United Nations (1945), the Organization of American States (1948), the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) (1960), the Group of 15 (1989), the World Trade Organization (1995), the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas (ALBA) (2004) and the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) (2008). Since the discovery of oil in the early 20th century, Venezuela has been one of the world's leading exporters of oil. Previously an underdeveloped exporter of agricultural commodities such as coffee and cocoa, oil quickly came to dominate exports and government revenues. The 1980s oil glut led to an external debt crisis and a long-running economic crisis, which saw inflation peak at 100% in 1996 and poverty rates rise to 66% in 1995[6] as (by 1998) per capita GDP fell to the same level as 1963, down a third from its 1978 peak.[7] The recovery of oil prices after 2001 boosted the Venezuelan economy and facilitated social spending, although the fallout of the 2008 global financial crisis saw a renewed economic downturn.
Marcadores de Definicion

Marcadores de Tiempo

Unidad II: Estructura de la Oración

Unidad II: Estructura de la Oración

En esta Unidad se conocerá la estructura gramatical de la Oración, descomponiéndola y conociendo la frase Nominal Y verbal al igual que sus Núcleos.

How big a threat are rising prices?
Feb 8th 2011, 16:35 by R.A. | WASHINGTON

IN 2007 and 2008, before the world was swept by financial panic, the biggest global economic threat appeared to be a sharp and sustained rise in commodity prices. Soaring oil costs rattled rich world consumers while a spike in food prices battered the world's poor. Prices tumbled during the crisis but have crept up again in recovery. A new crisis may loom. Overheating emerging markets are boosting global demand at a time when supply is tight. Extreme weather events have led to poor harvests around the world. Some credit rising prices with a wave of political unrest, which has itself placed upward pressure on commodities, especially oil.

This week, The Economist argues that some inflation concerns are overblown. Accelerating inflation is unlikely in weak developed economies, and emerging markets have plenty of tools available to fight rising prices. But the frequency with which commodity price spikes now seem to occur is worrying. And so this week, we asked members of the Economics by invitation network to discuss commodity inflation and talk about how central banks should respond.
Their responses indicate that there are no easy choices. Eswar Prasad writes that in the short term central banks should ignore volatile food price moves and in the long term structural supply increases are necessary, but:
This clear-cut answer is clearly not politically tenable in emerging market economies. Moreover, it turns out that the traditional analytical answer is overturned when one accounts for key features of emerging markets. A substantial fraction of households in emerging markets do not have access to formal finance, and they spend a major share of their household expenditures on food (and fuel). Hence, changes in food and fuel prices have substantial effects on the consumption decisions of these households. Since expenditure on food in total household expenditure is high, and demand for food is relatively inelastic, households in these economies factor in food price inflation while bargaining over wages. Through this channel, food price inflation may feed into inflation expectations. Thus, in emerging markets even inflation expectation-targeting central banks have to be concerned about food price inflation. As my recent research with Rahul Anand shows, central banks can stabilise the business cycle and improve average levels of economic welfare by targeting headline CPI inflation rather than core CPI inflation...
Selecciona tres oraciones e indica:
        Frase nominal, pre y post modificadores y  núcleo
        Frase verbal, núcleo
        Tiempo verbal de la oración

1.      IN 2007 and 2008, before the world was swept by financial panic, the biggest global economic threat appeared to be a sharp and sustained rise in commodity prices.
·         Frase Nominal y pre-modificadores  Nucleo F.N

·         Frase Verbal  Nucleo F.V
Tiempo Verbal de la Oración:  voz pasiva Pasado (WAS)

2.      This week Economist argues that some inflation concerns are overblown
·         Frase Nominal y pre-modificadores  Nucleo F.N

·         Frase Verbal  Nucleo F.V
Tiempo Verbal de la Oración: Presente Simple (ARGUES)

3.      A substantial fraction of households in emerging markets do not have access to formal finance, and they spend a major share of their household expenditures on food (and fuel).

·         Frase Nominal y pre-modificadores  Nucleo F.N

·         Frase Verbal  Nucleo F.V
Tiempo Verbal de la Oración: Presente Simple (do not have)

Idea Principal del Texto: Se observa que el Núcleo de nuestra lectura es la Inflación, teniendo como consecuencia a nivel mundial, la disminución del poder adquisitivo de los hogares ya que su aumento se ha observado y reflejado  en productos de consumo alimenticios, así como combustible, se recomienda atacar dicho aumento en estos productos para asi ofrecer mejor calidad de vida a los habitantes,

sábado, 12 de febrero de 2011

Unidad I: Uso del Diccionario

Unidad I: Use the Dictionary

Esta Unidad se trata del uso apropiado del Diccionario Bilingue, y lo podemos utilizar como estrategia para la comprension, lectura y tradccion de un texto. Dicha Unidad es de gran Importancia al igual que todas las relacionadas al programa.

Colombian rebel group scheduled to release 2 hostages

A Colombian police officer with a police dog stands guard next to two Brazilian helicopters with the Red Cross colors at the airport of Florencia, department of Caqueta, Colombia, on Thursday.

(CNN) -- A Colombian rebel group is expected to release two hostages Friday, according to a former senator who helped coordinate the humanitarian mission to free them.
"A very productive night, everything is ready for the liberations tomorrow, nobody said that it would be easy, we are not losing hope that together we can weave peace," former Sen. Piedad Cordoba said on her Twitter account late Thursday night.
Marine Henry Lopez Martinez and politician Armando Acuna were scheduled to be released Friday, she said.
They are among a group of five hostages that the FARC leftist guerrilla organization has pledged to release.

Red Cross rescuers are participating in the mission.

Helicopters bearing the organization's symbol flew into the jungle Wednesday to free the first of the group: a councilman from the town of San Jose de Guaviare.
Some have suggested the hostage releases could fuel renewed dialogue between Colombia's government and the rebels.But news of two more kidnappings by the FARC drew the ire of Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos.
The president said Thursday that he was tempted to call off the rescue mission after learning that two workers from the Carton de Colombia company had been kidnapped in southwestern Colombia Wednesday night.

"We are not going to suspend the liberations, because I do not want to frustrate the excitement and hope of the families of these hostages that are going to be freed, but what I want to say is that this game, this double standard, is totally unacceptable," he said.Two other hostages -- a police major and a military service member -- are expected to be released Sunday.
The FARC, or Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia, have been at war with the Colombian government since the 1960s.
In December, the FARC announced its plans to release the five hostages as a humanitarian gesture.
In its December statement, the FARC criticized Colombia's attorney general for removing and disqualifying Cordoba from serving in the legislature.The attorney general cited her close ties to the group as the basis for Cordoba's removal from the Senate.


• Selecciona un texto en Ingles relacionado con tu campo de experticia. (uno o dos párrafos)
• Lee tu texto y subraya 5 palabras nuevas.
• Busca en el diccionario y escribe el significado que mejor se adapte al contexto donde se encuentra.
• Señala: abreviaciones
• Indica si es palabra de contenido o de función
• Busca y subraya dos ejemplos para cada una de las siguientes categorías lexicales: Sustantivos, adjetivos, adverbios, verbos, conjunciones, preposiciones, artículos, prefijo, sufijo y cognados falsos y verdaderos.
• Escribe cual es la idea principal del texto y escribe con tus propias palabras que dice el texto en español.

Palabras Nuevas: traducción

1. nobody1/'nəʊˌbɑ:di/||/'nəʊbədi/pronombre

2. scheduled /'skedʒu:ld/ ||/'ʃedju:ld/ adjetivo (before n)
a. (planned)‹meeting/visit›previsto,programado;the ~ time of arrival/departure la hora de llegada/salida
b. (not chartered) ‹flight/service› regular

3. renewed [rɪ'njʊ:d] adjetivo renovado,-a

4. kidnap1 /'kɪdnæp/ verbo transitivo -pp- or (AmE) -p- secuestrar, raptar
kidnap2sustantivosecuestro m, rapto m

5. attorney/ə'tɜ:rni/||/ə'tɜ:ni/sustantivo(pl-neys)(AmE)abogado,-dam,f;

Palabra de contenido: military, president, helicopters

Palabra de funcion: : because

Verbos: helped, said, to release, to be released, flew, suspend, announced, to be freed, participating
Sustantivos Propios: Henry Lopez Martinez ,Armando Acuna, Cordoba's, Piedad Cordoba

Sustantivo Comunes: police

Sustantivo Concreto: FARC, helicopters

Sustantivo Abstracto: peace, excitement, hope

Adjetivos: president, police major, military, Senate.

Adverbio: totally

Articulo: the, a,

Preposicion: after

Conjucion: because

Demostrativos: that

Sufijo : totally

Cognados verdaderos: liberations, group, organization, guerrilla, mission. organization's, government, liberations, families, President

Cognados falsos: releases

Idea del Texto:


Las FARC grupo rebelde desde 1960 ,de nuestro país Hermano Colombia, se encuentran en procesos de Liberación de dos Rehenes, acción Humanitaria que se ha logrado gracias a la participación de la Ex- Senadora Piedad Córdova, la cual no pierde ni escatima esfuerzo por la liberación de todos los secuestradores en manos de las FARC. El Domingo se pudo lograr dicha liberación dos Oficiales de Colombia, devolviéndole paz y tranquilidad a las familias de los mismos, se seguirá con esta acción hasta llegar al final, y las paz de todos los colombianos. Piedad Córdova.

jueves, 10 de febrero de 2011

UNIDAD III:Aproximación al texto

UNIDAD III:Aproximación al texto
Esta Unidad hace referencia a los metodos de los cuales disponemos para la comprension de lecturas en ingles, utilizando destrezas, entre estas aplicaremos la de palabras que se repiten , skimming, scannig entre otros metodos.

Nokia at the crossroads

Blazing platforms

It is not just the world’s biggest handset-maker that has lost its edge. So has Europe’s whole mobile-phone industry

APOCALYPTIC language fuels the technology industry as much as venture capital does. But Stephen Elop, Nokia’s new boss, may have set a new standard. “We are standing on a burning [oil] platform,” he wrote in a memo to all 132,000 employees of the world’s biggest handset-maker. If Nokia did not want to be consumed by the flames, it had no choice but to plunge into the “icy waters” below. In plainer words, the company must change its ways radically.
On February 11th, at a “strategy and financial briefing” in London, Mr Elop is due to announce the change he has in mind. The main question is whether Nokia will continue with its own operating system for smartphones, team up with Microsoft or perhaps even make a bet on Android, the fast-growing system developed by Google. There has even been talk that Mr Elop, the Finnish firm’s first American chief executive, will fire senior managers and move the firm’s headquarters to Silicon Valley.
This would be an astonishing upheaval for what was one of Europe’s hottest firms. Behind Nokia’s woes lurks a dismal reversal of fortunes, not just for the Finnish company but also for much of Europe’s mobile-phone industry. In the 1990s Europe appeared to have beaten even Silicon Valley in mobile technology. European telecoms firms had settled on a single standard for mobile phones. Handsets became affordable, Europe was the biggest market for them and the old continent’s standard took over the world. “Europe was the cradle for innovation and scale in mobile”, says Ameet Shah of PRTM, a management consultancy.

This changed with the emergence of smartphones, in particular Apple’s iPhone, which appeared in 2007. Nokia still ships a third of all handsets, but Apple astonishingly pulls in more than half of the profits, despite having a market share of barely 4% (see charts, below). More Americans now have smartphones than Europeans. As for standards, Verizon, America’s biggest mobile operator, is leading the world in implementing the next wireless technology, called LTE.
Cheap as chips

Nokia, along with the rest of Europe’s mobile industry, is also being squeezed in both simple handsets and networking equipment. Cheap mobile phones based on chips from MediaTek, a company based in Taiwan, are increasingly popular in developing countries. By some accounts this system and its users now account for more than one-third of the phones sold globally, Mr Elop wrote in his memo. And at $28 billion in 2010, the revenues of China’s Huawei almost equal those of Sweden’s Ericsson, the world’s leading maker of gear for wireless networks.
At its most fundamental, this shift is the result of Moore’s Law, which holds that microprocessors double in computing power every 18 months. The first generations of modern mobile phones were purely devices for conversation and text messages. The money lay in designing desirable handsets, manufacturing them cheaply and distributing them widely. This played to European strengths. The necessary skills overlapped most of all in Finland, which explains why Nokia, a company that grew up producing rubber boots and paper, could become the world leader in handsets.
As microprocessors become more powerful, mobile phones are changing into hand-held computers. As a result, most of their value is now in software and data services. This is where America, in particular Silicon Valley, is hard to beat. Companies like Apple and Google know how to build overarching technology platforms. And the Valley boasts an unparalleled ecosystem of entrepreneurs, venture capitalists and software developers who regularly spawn innovative services.
Nokia had some additional problems to deal with. The firm realised its world was changing and was working on a touch-screen phone much like the iPhone as early as 2004. Realising the importance of mobile services, it launched Ovi, an online storefront for such things in 2007, a year before Apple opened its highly successful App Store.
But turning a Finnish hardware-maker into a provider of software and services is no easy undertaking. Nokia dallied and lost the initiative. Historically, Nokia has been a highly efficient manufacturing and logistics machine capable of churning out a dozen handsets a second and selling them all over the world. Planning was long-term and new devices were developed by separate teams, sometimes competing with each other—the opposite of what is needed in software, where there is a premium on collaborating and doing things quickly.
Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo, Nokia’s boss from 2006 until last September, was keenly aware of the difficulty. To get an infusion of fresh blood Nokia bought several start-ups and was reorganised to strengthen its software and services. And it tried to turn Symbian, its own operating system for smartphones, into a platform in the mould of the iPhone and Android. “But just like Sony, Nokia has not found a way to shift from hardware to software,” says Stéphane Téral of Infonetics Research.
To allow Nokia finally to shed its hardware skin, Mr Elop, a former senior executive at Microsoft, was brought in—and apparently given what Mr Kallasvuo never had: carte blanche. This is why most observers expect him to carry out thorough changes, concerning in particular the operating system on which Nokia intends to bet its future. The firm has to move fast if it wants to have a chance to create a third platform for mobile software and services next to Android and the iPhone.
Nokia is unlikely to throw in its lot with Android. The software may be open-source, but it comes with strings attached—notably Google’s mobile services and advertising. This would reduce Nokia to being a device-maker and render obsolete many of its investments in services. Nokia could go it alone with MeeGo, a technically advanced but still incomplete operating system it is developing jointly with Intel, but some think that is unlikely. Or it could bet on Microsoft’s new mobile operating system, Windows Phone 7.
Investors seem to prefer the Windows option. When rumours began swirling early this month that this was what Mr Elop was planning, Nokia’s share price, which has dropped by two-thirds since early 2008, surged by nearly 7%. Teaming up with Microsoft would indeed have benefits, says Ben Wood of CCS Insight, another market research firm. Given his background, Mr Elop could surely make such a partnership work. And it could help Nokia make a comeback in America, where its market share is in the low single digits. On the other hand, argues Mr Wood, Windows Phone 7 has not been a huge success so far. It would also take at least six months before the first “Windokia” phones hit the shelves—a long time in a fast-moving industry.
Other bits of Europe’s mobile-phone industry are already showing signs of revival. The revenues of ARM, a British firm, may only be in the hundreds of millions, but most microprocessors found in handsets and other mobile devices are based on its designs. Ericsson now generates 40% of its revenues with services, for instance by managing wireless networks around the world. And on February 7th Alcatel-Lucent unveiled technology that reduces the size of a wireless base station from a filing cabinet’s to that of a Rubik’s cube.
But for a full comeback, Europe will have to wait for an entrepreneurial culture like Silicon Valley’s. This may not be as hopeless as it sounds. The beginnings of such a culture have taken root in recent years, and some successful start-ups have sprouted. One of the most popular games for smartphones, for instance, does not hail from the Valley but from Finland. “Angry Birds” has been downloaded more than 50m times since its release in December 2009. It is so addictive that compulsive players have been asking their doctors for help in kicking the habit.

Taller: Unidad III

Predicción, deducción, Skimming
          Seleccione un texto que tenga una imagen.
          Observe la imagen y conteste las siguientes preguntas.
          De acuerdo al título y la imagen, ¿cuál cree usted que es el tópico que está a punto de leer?
Tomando en cuenta los objetos de estudio (titulo e imagen del texto ) se observa que el tópico del tema es referente al hundimiento financiero de la empresa NOKIA al igual que otras empresas de producción de teléfonos móvil en el continente Europeo
          ¿Cuál es la idea general del texto?
Se puede concluir que el tema es referente a la perdida financiera de la empresa NOKIA una de las principales empresas de producción  de teléfonos móvil, al igual que otras empresas Europeas, dichas pérdidas son causadas por el desplazamiento producido por otras empresa, las cuales son de origen chino estableciéndose en el mercado de países en desarrollo con equipos telefónicos de menos valor en las cuales se incrementa su compra.
          ¿Qué palabras se repiten?
System, technology, industry, wireless, company, operating, Nokia
          ¿Qué palabras se parecen al español?
Capital, System, technology, industry, consumed, company, strategy, financial, innovation, fundamental, generations, conversation, microprocessors, capitalists
          ¿Cuáles son las palabras en negrita, el titulo, subtitulo o gráficos que te ayudan a entender el texto?
Blazing platforms
It is not just the world’s biggest handset-maker that has lost its edge. So has Europe’s whole mobile-phone industry
Nokia at the crossroads

          ¿De qué trata el texto? Lee el primer párrafo y el último o la ultimas ideas del último párrafo.
El texto presente, se trata de la caída y desploma miento de las más importantes empresas de fabricación telefónica de Europa, entre la más destacadas la Empresa NOKIA líder en la fabricación de telefonía móvil, así mismo se puede observar que han sido desplazados por empresas de origen asiático como hawei. Empresas como NOKIA están evaluando una solución para este problema financiero que los tiene entre las fuertes llamas y las aguas congeladas, es una decisión que se está evaluando en una estrategia e información financiera donde presentaran dichos cambios.


          Seleccione un texto  y escribe 4 preguntas puntuales sobre fechas, sitios, etc) (utiliza una biografía referente a algún autor de tu área de experticia))
       Adam Smith
Adam Smith (baptised 16 June 1723 – died 17 July 1790 [OS: 5 June 1723 – 17 July 1790]) was a Scottish social philosopher and a pioneer of political economics. One of the key figures of the Scottish Enlightenment, Smith is the author of The Theory of Moral Sentiments and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. The latter, usually abbreviated as The Wealth of Nations, is considered his magnum opus and the first modern work of economics. It earned him an enormous reputation and would become one of the most influential works on economics ever published. Smith is widely cited as the father of modern economics and capitalism.

Smith studied social philosophy at the University of Glasgow and the University of Oxford. After graduating, he delivered a successful series of public lectures at Edinburgh, leading him to collaborate with David Hume during the Scottish Enlightenment. Smith obtained a professorship at Glasgow teaching moral philosophy, and during this time he wrote and published The Theory of Moral Sentiments. In his later life, he took a tutoring position that allowed him to travel throughout Europe, where he met other intellectual leaders of his day. Smith returned home and spent the next ten years writing The Wealth of Nations, publishing it in 1776. He died in 1790

1.      ¿Cuando Nacio Adam Smith?
Adam Smith (baptised 16 June 1723 – died 17 July 1790

2.      ¿Donde estudio Adam Smith?
at the University of Glasgow and the University of Oxford.
3.      ¿Que Carrera Estudio Adam Smith?
Smith studied social philosophy
4.      ¿Cuál fue la cátedra Dictada por Smith?
Smith obtained a professorship at Glasgow teaching moral philosophy

5.      ¿En qué año fue publicada “La Riqueza de las Naciones?
Smith returned home and spent the next ten years writing The Wealth of Nations, publishing it in 1776

Introductory Reading For Being a Leader and The Effective Exercise of Leadership: An Ontological Model "Lectura Introductoria"

Effective leadership does not come from mere knowledge about what successful leaders do; or from trying to emulate the characteristics or styles of noteworthy leaders; or from trying to remember and follow the steps, tips, or techniques from books or coaching on leadership. And it certainly does not come from merely being in a leadership position or in a position of authority or having decision rights. This paper, the sixth of six pre-course reading assignments for an experimental leadership course developed by HBS professor emeritus Michael C. Jensen and coauthors, accompanies a course specifically designed to provide actionable access to being a leader and the effective exercise of leadership as one's natural self-expression. Key concepts include:
One of the conditions for realizing the promise of the leadership course is that students must be open to examine, question, and then transform their worldviews (models of reality) and frames of reference (mindsets).
Students create for themselves a powerful 4-part contextual framework that calls them into being as a leader. Having done this what remains is to confront one's own Ontological Perceptual and Functional constraints so as: 1) to relax their ability to restrict one's perceptions of what must be dealt with in any leadership situation, and 2) to relax their ability to restrict one's freedom of choice for action in any leadership situation.
Students cannot master that which they do not create for themselves. This is especially true of anything that is at first counterintuitive.

Sobre que trata el articulo.. cual es la idea principal.?

Referente a la idea principal del Texto,pude observar que un buen Liderazgo es aquel que es proporcionado por si mismo, utilizando las herramientas conocidas , ya que es dificil controlar las cosas que no hemos creado,es decir poseer nuestras propias caracteristicas y enfoques de un Liderazgo Efectivo nos llevaran a serlo, y no necesariamente seguir modelos de liderazgo , ni haber estado en dicha posicion pueden demostrar que una persona sea lider.